Until unification in Germany was content to take a back seat to the US on security matters and to France on EU matters. France was particularly damaged in the north and east of the country, where the battlefront had lasted four years.
What is incontestable, however, is the number of advances in science, technology and medicine, as well as the revolutionary changes in social behaviour that occurred as a result of the conflict. They told of the patriotic courage of the heroic combatants of Chemin des Dames, the Somme, and Verdun, battlefields that are all memorial sites today.
Young men mutilated themselves rather than serve in the colonial army. In addition to such demands, the subsistence farmer in territories in which campaigns were fought, particularly in East Africa, was subject to the exactions of armies which, because of supply problems, could not but live off the land.
Social Consequences Labour class became important. The Japanese navy also succeeded in seizing several of Germany's island possessions in the Western Pacific: the MarianasCarolinesand Marshall Islands.
United States[ edit ] While disillusioned by the war, it having not achieved the high ideals promised by President Woodrow WilsonAmerican commercial interests did finance Europe's rebuilding and reparation efforts in Germany, at least until the onset of the Great Depression.
However, even if relations with Berlin became very friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal, as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Triesteparts of the Austro-Hungarian empire populated by Italians.